This research examines the importance of seed dispersal. We started with native mistletoes, then have expanded out to other native fleshy-fruited plants. All the New Zealand Loranthaceae mistletoe species have fleshy fruits and are bird dispersed. An initial survey seemed to show that even where they are pollen limited, these mistletoes are not disperser limited (see Ladley and Kelly 1996). At present we are studying the potential mechanisms for this and how dispersal is affected by fragmentation. The impacts of introduced species, both birds (e.g. blackbirds) and mammals (e.g. possums) is also being evaluated. For more information, see the Mistletoe research group pages.